Physicochemical

Gas chromatography:
- Flame Ionisation Detector (FID).
- Electron Capture Detection (ECD).
- Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NPD).
- Mass Spectrometry (MS).
- Head Space.

Liquid chromatography (HPLC):
- Ultraviolet.
- Fluorescence.
- Refraction index.

Capilar Electroforesis:
-Ultravioleta - Visible.

Infra-red spectrometry:
- Fourier transformation (FT).
- Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR).
- Spectrum library

Molecular absorption photo-spectrometry (UV-VIS).
Atomic Absorption Photo-spectrometry (AAS):
- Flame.
- Hydride generator / Cold vapour.
- Graphite chamber.

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
TOC (Total Organic Carbon).
Potentiometer-Electrometer:
- pH.
- Conductivity.
- Fluoride selective electrode.

ELISA: Antigen-antibody reaction.
Measurement equipment:
- Air quality monitors.
- Ozone monitors.
- Aerosol monitors.
- Thermal stress monitors.
- Noise meters.
- Thermo-anemometers.
- Light meters.
- Particle counters.
- Personal samplers.